Pesticides are prepared as a relatively pure chemical called technical substance. The technical substance is relatively pure and contains 95 to 100% of the active substance.
In most cases, the active ingredient can not be used directly against the pest and must be operated for practical use. This preparation operation is called formulation. Formulation is a set of operations performed on the active ingredient to improve the properties of the pesticide in terms of storage, transportation, application, effectiveness, penetration, stability and hygiene.
The types of formulations are as follows:
Concentrated emulsifying liquid EC):Most pesticides in Iran are in this formulation. Emulsion is a concentrated liquid that is diluted with water. This formulation is in fact a concentrated oily solution containing the active ingredient of pesticide that is easily mixed with water and in the form of oil particles. It contains an effective and suspended substance in water. The reason for the emulsification of the emulsion is the size of the droplets and its dispersion in water.
Water or liquid miscible solution (SL, L, S):These solutions are mixed with water. The active substance is dissolved in water or alcohol. The liquid formulation is similar to an emulsion; But when mixed with water, it does not stain like a milky emulsion.
Oil solution: This formulation is mostly prepared for home use and contains a solution of the active ingredient in an oily solvent such as odorless oil.
Round (D): Round or powder is the oldest type of formulation that is easy to use. Sulfur mud is a good example of this formulation. In most cases, the toxic active ingredient is added to an inert substance such as clay or gypsum and rounded. Round formulations are usually less effective than other formulations because the pesticide particles do not stick to the plant aerial parts and therefore Not very stable.
Wet powder or table (WP): Powder and tabletop are basically round containing the active ingredient that comes with the wetting agent. If this powder is added to water, it will be suspended in water. The active ingredient is usually added to inert materials such as talcum powder or clay, and after adding the wetting agent, it is ground. The suspension in powder and tabletop is not very stable and settles after a while.
Invertersuspension: A formulation to reduce the wind of slavery in which the active ingredient is enclosed in capsules of the same size that the shell has a positive charge. This formulation, while preventing the evaporation of the effective substance, causes more droplets to be targeted and a better coating to be created.
Concentrated Liquid Liquid (SC) (FL): This type of formulation is concentrated and creamy. For this purpose, the active ingredient is suspended in a liquid and mixed with water at the time of consumption.
Concentrated Fluid Formulation for Seed Disinfection (FS): This formulation is a stable suspension that is applied directly or after dilution and leaves a thin layer on the seed.
Distributable Oil (OD): This formulation is a suspension consisting of one or two active ingredients suspended in an oily liquid. Mixing this oil with water forms a suspension.
Formulation(ULV): This formulation is used for agricultural, sanitary and forest spraying purposes. In this formulation, either the active substance is a liquid that is consumed after synthesis, or if it is solid, it will be dissolved in the smallest volume of solvent and will be used without dilution.
Granules(G):Granules are small grains 0.1 to 2.5 mm in size that contain a toxic substance. The core of the granule is actually clay, sand, softened walnut shell, or ground cob on which the active ingredient is sprayed and absorbed.
Dry Fluid (DF): This formulation is also known as WDG. This formulation is similar to powder and tablet. The difference is that the active ingredient is absorbed by granular grains that are easily mixed with water. Pesticides that do not dissolve in water and oil are formulated in this way.
Smoke cartridge: In this formulation, the active ingredient is volatile and fills the environment. One of the advantages of this formulation is that the gas molecules are dispersed everywhere and kill the pest and also do not remain in the environment for a long time after ventilation.
Sprays: The cans are closed and pressurized, from which the poison particles enter the space by pressing a button. To make the sprays, the active ingredient is dissolved in a volatile solvent such as petroleum ether and closed with a pressurized gas such as fluorocarbon or carbon dioxide. They classify.
Pastepaste: It is used to fight pests that live in the corridors inside the branches and trunks of plants. The dough contains a volatile active ingredient, which usually kills the pest through the vapor phase.
Poisonous bait: It is prepared by mixing pesticides with a pesticide that may be its food.
Water-soluble packages (WSP) (RTU):The use of this formulation reduces the risks of mixing some highly toxic pesticides during spraying.