foliar application in germination stage is one of the most important stages of spraying in orchards . At the same time, some food elements move from other parts of the plant to the bud.
Studies conducted in the past have been reported(, zinc), Zn (and on)B (over) are more importantly than other elements. therefore , in foliar application of germination stage of germination , fertilizer compounds containing these three elements were recommended . recently , the role of elements such as phosphorus , calcium , molybdenum , potassium and amino acids are also found to be effective in the process formation process .
Foliar spraying at the bud swelling stage is one of the key foliar spraying stages in orchards. At the same time , some food elements move from other parts of the plant to the bud .
Studies conducted in the past have reported three elements of َazot( N ) , Zinc ( ZN ) and ( B ) here , more importantly than other elements For this reason , in the solution of the phase of the seedlings , the fertilizer compounds containing the three elements were recommended
recently , the role of elements such as phosphorus , calcium , molybdenum , potassium and amino acids are also found to be effective in the process formation process .
The reason for the importance of solution at this stage is the extraordinary need of shoots for early rapid growth and the inability of elements through roots at this stage of plant growth. There is a phase difference between one to two weeks between the start – up phase of the tree ” s air component ( the stage of shoots and pollination is one of the first stage of growth of each plant ) and the start of the root system to absorb food elements is a phase difference between one to two weeks .
At this critical stage , the tree itself is decisive for the production and operation of the tree , which requires a great need of food elements .
The higher the storage of the food elements, the more successful the pollination will be. In order to increase tree food supply , it has to take into account the necessary nutritional measures since the previous growth season . the best time of spraying after harvest is, September and October and foliure is the swelling stage of buds.
The Foliar application of the shoot begins with the start of the movement and the opening of the shoots . at this stage, the scales on the shoot are separated and the adsorption coefficient increases.
It is recommended that a water solution is made on the swollen buds of the male trees . If in the early stage of swelling the buds failed to spray and the male flowers were opened, try not to spray the solution on the male trees while spraying. However , it is recommended that the Foliar application time be adjusted so that the male trees are liquid; because the role of the element on the Foliar application formula is to increase the lifespan of the male spine as well as increasing the physical length of the male pollen tube during the inoculation process .
.The results show that following the use of oats and ammonium accumulation in shoots and buds, biosynthesis of polyamines and arginine has increased and because these compounds play a role in cell division, thereby increasing cell division and ultimately increasing flowering for the next year.
azot provides the necessary carbon hydrate for newly formed buds and thus reduces the year-on-year in fruit trees. Azot, for example , has caused a 2 – 4 % increase in fruit production and an increase in the growth of seedlings in the apple tree .
Application of Azot in autumn in apple trees has had a better result in fruit formation than its spring application. The effect of autumn application of Azot on oocyte life and pollen inoculation time in spring has been proved.
Consumption of Azot fertilizers at this time may increase leaf size in the spring of next year, but excessive consumption of nitrogen can stimulate vegetative growth and reduce fruit formation. It should be noted that giving n at this stage has a significant effect on the resistance of buds to cold and their viability in the early next growing season.
Zinc is one of the elements that plays an important role in tree growth and yield. On time awakening of vegetative and reproductive buds from hibernation and successful pollination is the most important role of this element in the tree. Zinc-deficient gardens wake up later than healthy gardens, the distance between the interns in the trees is shortened and the twigs become sweeping. In the case of mild and moderate deficiency of this element, while shortening the interns, the leaf margins are wave-shaped. Calcareousness and high reaction of soils in some regions cause stabilization and unusable of this element in different soils and organs of the tree.
Zinc plays a role in the production of chlorophyll and accelerates enzymatic activities and photosynthesis. It plays an important role in the metabolism of azot, pigment formation, product flavor and vitamin C synthesis.
Zinc (Zn) is a precursor to the production of auxin hormone, another effective element in the fruit-set process, which plays an essential role in the growth, pollination and yield of fruit trees and stimulates the growth of vegetative and reproductive buds.
Studies show that after foliar application at swelling stage of buds, the zinc element is transferred from other tree organs to the buds.
As a result, the concentration of this element at this stage in the buds is several times higher than usual.
On the key element is pollination and in other words harvesting. The longevity of pollen grain and the length of the pollen tube are directly dependent on the element.
At a time when the deficiency is mild, due to the poor growth of pollen tube in the khameh, oocyte inoculation decreases after pollination. In situations where the shortage in the garden is very severe, the damage at this stage is similar to severe cold damage.
Deficiency is more important within the buds as long as it is in the soil or leaves. Due to zinc deficiency, flags are not grown and pollen grains are not formed and the mud remains small. Foliar application before opening the buds increases fruit formation. Therefore, it is recommended that spraying of fruit trees be repeated in the swelling stage of buds in late March or early spring. Deficiency causes rapid expansion or disintegration of growing pollen tubes. In flowers, pollen pipe is needed for growth and must be supplied through stigma.
For example, the first stage of pistachio poching that occurs in late April is due to a lack of elements. Because this element plays an essential role in completing pollen tube growth. Timely application of fertilizer increases flag production capacity and pollen grain survival.
This element indirectly increases sugars in flower sap and makes them more attractive to insects. This element is very essential for the growth of stem and root tails (terminal meristems) and the first symptoms of its deficiency will occur as a stop to the growth of the terminal bud. Due to the lack of effect , the roots will be short and shrubs , and thus they will not be able to quickly meet the required elements in the plant at the beginning of the growing season .
The orientation of flowers in different plants requires a certain degree of element in relation to the dry weight of the plant stigma . In the grapes , for example , it is 50 – 60 Mg of each per gram stigma .
In general , the fertilizer compounds containing the fruit elements are preserving the number of more flowers and reducing the fall of fruits . Studies show that at the swelling stage of the seedlings , the seedlings migrate to the seedlings and the concentration of the element on the seedlings at this stage is several times as common .
It is therefore advisable to repeat the solution with this element in addition to a Falior after removal of the bud .